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PrEazgopy Museum or Natura. History

YALE UNIVERSITY Number 82 June 5, 1964 New Haven, Conn.


Beatrice R. Voce’

Universiry oF CoLtorapo Museum, Bounper, CoLorapo


The distincta group of the genus Pardosa in America north of Mexico is a group of six closely related species. Their phy- letic relationship is indicated by similar color pattern and geni- tal morphology, and five of the six species occupy the ‘‘same” habitat. Five of the species, P. montgomeryi, P. orophila, P. utahensis, P. xerophila and P. yavapa are found in the Rocky Mountain states from New Mexico north through Wyoming. P. distincta is found throughout the Rocky Mountains, includ- ing Canada, and eastward to New England. While P. distincta is one of the most frequently encountered Pardosa species in the Rocky Mountains, the other five species of the group are rarely seen because of their size and restricted choice of habitat. This paper is a taxonomic review of the group.

1 Present address: Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

2 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 82

The author wishes to express her deepest appreciation to Dr. W. J. Gertsch of the American Museum of Natural History for his kind help and suggestions and for the loan of specimens from the Museum’s collections. The author would like also to express her appreciation to Dr. H. G. Rodeck of the University of Colorado Museum and to the Graduate School of the Uni- versity of Colorado for their support of her research; to Dr. Harriet Exline (Mrs. D. L. Frizzell) for reading the manu- script and suggestions; to Dr. U. N. Lanham and Mr. C. J. McCoy for criticism of the manuscript; and to Dr. C. L. Remington of Yale University for assistance in its preparation and publication. Thanks are also extended for the loan of col- lecticns by: Dr. H. W. Levi of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, including paratypes of P. utahensis; and Dr. D. H. Lowrie of the Los Angeles State College of Applied Arts and Sciences. Much of the material examined was collected by the author during 1961-1963 for the University of Colorado Museum, and is cn loan to the author. Specimens of each of the species (except P. montgomeryi) are being deposited at the Yale Peabody Museum.


The distincta group as defined here includes the following species: Pardosa distincta, P. montgomeryi, P. orophila, P. utahensis, P. xerophila; and P. yavapa. These six species are characterized by a distinctly light median longitudinal band on the dorsal side of both cephalothorax and abdomen, in at least the females; melanism sometimes obscures this marking in the males. The median band begins near the posterior end of the ocular quadrangle and extends caudad the length of the spider. The edges of the median band are rather sharply delineated from the bordering dark bands. There is usually a pair of lighter bands ectal to the dark bands on the cephalothorax, which are in turn bordered by dark bands, more or less narrow, at the edge of the carapace. Laterally, the abdomen is lighter, but there are no well-defined lateral bands. At the anterior end of the abdomen, in the median band over the heart, is a dia- mond-shaped mark, with its anterior corner truncated. The diamond is outlined in dark gray, brown or black, and its

ser s 1964

HARVARD June 5, 1964 The distincta group of Pardosa \AN\VERSIT3.

interior may be dark or the color of the median band. The males of P. distincta, P. xerophila and P. yavapa sometimes have enough melanism to obscure the median band, especially on the abdomen, but occasionally on both tagmata. Even so, the characteristic pattern is apparent on immature males, or in mature males at the beginning of their ultimate instar.

Close similarities of genital structure also characterize the group. The terms used for the male palpus are the conventional ones, and the terms used to describe parts of the female geni- talia are shown in figures 1 and 2.

The epigynum is characterized by a median guide elevated above the epigynal plate (that is, toward the viewer in a ventral view), and the basal portion of the guide is expanded for about 14 to 24 the length of the guide. At the anterior end of the median guide is a small hood which extends over the guide. The lateral sides of the epigynum are not elevated above the abdo- men and the epigastric plate has no rim other than the hood. The openings to the internal structures are covered by the expanded base of the median guide. The two halves of the reproductive system are not connected by a common atrium. The darker sclerotization of the internal parts of the reproductive system shows through the epigastric plate, ventral view. In a dorsal view, the atria are above (toward the viewer) the lateral portions of the basal expansions of the median guide. The atria connect to the seminal receptacles which are at about a 45° angle to the longitudinal axis of the animal. Deviations are in P. orophila where they make a greater angle with the axis, and in P, yavapa where the angle is less. The seminal receptacles are somewhat dumbbell-shaped, and their anterior ends lie parallel to the longitudinal axis.

The median apophysis of the male palpus is quite long and slants diagonally across the ventral side to the distal end of the palpus. The tip of the median apophysis turns dorsad, just over the edge of the cymbium. The median apophysis is more or less curved at the middle, or with a bulge about the middle of its length. There is a short hook-shaped process at the base of the median apophysis which is turned ventrally. The embolus is of moderate length, slender, and crosses the palpus at about the middle, at right angles to the long axis of the palpus. The tegu-

4. Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 82


epigynal plate

anterior shank ; ; median guide

expanded base

internal structure

epigastric furrow

seminal receptacle atrium

fertilization duct

Figure 1. Epigynum (diagrammatic), ventral. Figure 2, Epigynum (diagrammatic), dorsal.

lum is cup-shaped and partly encircles the base cf the median apophysis. The patella of the pedipalp is not particularly enlarged, and the palpus is not conspicuously hairy.

The spiders of the distincta group are small, with average length about 5 mm, but individuals of P. distincta 7 mm long are commonly encountered. P. distincta is found in moist hab- itats: marshes, stream margins or meadows which remain green. P. orophila, P. utahensis and P. yavapa are found generally on dry slopes, underneath pine trees. There is no obvious dif- ference in habitat preference of these species, and any of them may be found in suitable location within their ranges. P. yavapa is found alone where the pine needle litter is two or three inches deep, or with P. orophila or P. utahensis where the pine litter

June 5, 1964 The distincta group of Pardosa 5

does not prevent growth of grass or other vegetation. In Boulder County, Colorado, the writer has taken P. orophila only in the company of P. yavapa, although there sometimes appears to be local segregation. P. utahensis is usually found alone, but it may occur with P. yavapa. P. utahensis can be found on open prairies and under sage brush, as well as in pine forests. Of the four species mentioned above, P. wtahensis tole- rates the hottest, driest conditions. P. orophila and P. utahensis do not seem to occur together. Near forest streams, it is possible to collect P. distincta, P. utahensis and P. yavapa together, at least in adjacent microhabitats. The isolating mechanisms of the species must be ethological and mechanical. No hybrids have been reported, although these species have ample geographic and seasonal opportunity to hybridize. P. montgomeryi and P. xerophila are not included in the above discussion since the author has had no field experience with them. Dr. Gertsch states (personal communication) that they occupy the same dry hab- itat in a pine forest as does P. yavapa. Throughout the common range of these three species, sympatric occurrence of any two species is more common than solitary occurrence of a species. Occasionally all three occur together.

The distincta group is closely related to several other species of Pardosa. P. delicatula, P. milvina, P. mulaiki and P. pauxilla are all small spiders and have epigyna similar to those in the distincta group. P. delicatula and P. milvina may be excluded because the palpi of the males of these two species are unlike the palpi of the distincta group. The palpi of males of P. mulaiki and P. pauwilla are similar to those of the distincta group, but their median apophyses are quite short, not reaching the edge of the cymbium. The distincta group is thus limited to the six species which resemble one another in the genitalia of both sexes, in color pattern, habitat, and frequent sympatric occurrence.

Selected measurements of the species are given in Table 1. The figure given is the average of measurements taken from ten specimens (unless otherwise noted) which were collected at the same time from one place. An ocular rule was used for measur- ing, not permitting accuracy greater than tenths of millimeters. Measurements of eye relationships have been omitted because

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8 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 82

the writer feels that they are not significantly different in this group from the genus as a whole, and ocular placement is not one of the important characters in recognizing these species.

For the same reason measurements of labium and sternum are omitted.

It is interesting to note the effect of latitude on the size of P. distincta, The females in the population from about 45°N (Carbon County, Montana) average 0.2 mm longer and the males average 0.4 mm longer than those in the population from about 87°N (Conejos County, Colorado). The average length of carapace is the same for female of both groups, but the northern males average 0.1 mm longer carapace. The legs of the northern group are longer than the legs of the southern group: about 0.6 mm for the first three pairs of legs, and 0.8-0.9 mm for the fourth pair. Southern males show greater melanism than the northern ones, being generally much darker, and the pattern more obscure. Western males, in general, are much darker than Eastern ones, especially those from New England. There, the males and females of P. distincta are the the same color.

The colors given below, except for P. verophila, are from specimens kept in alcohol not more than two years. The pat- terns and colors are very useful in separating species, but it must be remembered that the colors change in alcohol. While there is normally no marked change for about five years, speci- mens older than this tend to become brownish. Reds and yellows are soluble in alcohol and are the first colors to change or disap- pear. Some of the subcutaneous white markings seem fairly per- manent, and the hair colors show little change. The basic pat- terns can still be discerned in older specimens, even though the colors have faded.



1. Females 2



June 5, 1964 The distincta group of Pardosa


With a bright cherry red spot posterior to eyes, and with a mustache of white hairs on sides of HOVERS: 2 6g hy Sie ane ae Cte ce een Etat reanonee

No spot of color posterior to eyes, or if present never cherry red, mustache not of white hairs ...

Median band of cephalothorax tapering to nearly OLE at POSPELION EMG. cio) o 05% beat wu olierey oer

Median band with parallel sides or tapering slishtiy but never to a point 2. on... .2.2... 55

Heart mark on dorsal side of abdomen brown or gray, color darker than median band ..........

Heart mark rosy or yellow, color not especially darker than median band

Median band of abdomen posterior to heart consisting of paired triangles or circles; expanded base of median guide large, more than 14 the LETS ON CLETTITV (2 Rr eae ea One er eee

Median band posterior to heart without markings ; expanded base of median guide not large, less than *5athe length of guide 23.0% ctry500 45

Expanded base of median guide large and round, about 14 the length of guide; epigynal plate small

Expanded base of median guide small and round, about 1/3 the length of guide; epigynal plate extensive

Median apophysis of palp large, with strong longitudinal corrugations ; tip blunt and extending past retrolateral margin of cymbium so as to be conspicuous in dorsal view

Median apophysis without strong corrugations and not conspicuous in dorsal view ..........





montgomer yi




10 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 82

8. With bright cherry red spot posterior to eyes: median apophysis with slender base and promi- Mont prmedian, -beIge. ¢.- acho cess cuss ate toe iale ee orophila

No distinct color spot posterior to eyes, or if spot present, never bright cherry red; median apophysis without slender base and prominent median DORIS 5.21% «ac dion stars waa SEP 9

9. Median band of cephalothorax tapering to nearly A POiit tk POStETiOr CNG «20 suns © eae ese ee yavapa Median bands of cephalothorax with parallel

sides, or tapering slightly, but never to a point .. 10

10. Spider mainly dark; median band on cephalo-

thorax and abdomen not distinct ............ verophila Spider with light and dark bands; median band of cephalothorax and abdomen dist-nct ........ 11 11. Median apophysis of palp arched anteriorly, without a bend at base; embolus not concealed byateomluni +. 2sa5 be Sean eek he Gok ae ee ee utahensis Median apophysis with a conspicuous bend at base, not arched anteriorly; embolus generally Comcealed “by otequluia oP ok ie selec acre were montgomeryt

SPECIES DESCRIPTIONS Pardosa distincta (Blackwall)

Lycosa distincta Blackwall, J., 1846, Ann. Mag. Nat. Sci. (1) 17:32. Marx, G., 1890, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. .12:561.

Pardosa pallida K.merton, J. H., 1885, Trans. Conn, Acad. Arts Sci. 7:496; 1902, The common spiders of the United States, Boston:82. Peckham, G. W. 1887, J. Morph. 1:396-400, 418; 1895, Trans. Wisc. Acad. Sci. Arts Let. 10:237. Marx, G., 1890. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 12:565. Banks, N., 1892, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. (1) :68; 1895, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 8:429; 1916, Proc. Acad Nat. Sci. Phil. 68:81 (—emertoni= distincta). Slosson, A. T., 1898, J. N.Y. Ent. Soc. 6:248. Britcher, H. W., 1908, Proc.

June 5, 1964 The distincta group of Pardosa 11

Onondaga Acad. Sci. 1:129. Montgomery, T. H., 1903, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 55:653; 1904, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 56:267,271. Bryant, E. B., 1908, Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 1 -OG-

Pardosa emertoni Chamberlin, R. V., 1904, Canad. Ent. 36:175 (n. nov. pro pallida Emerton, praeocc.) ; 1908, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 172,190. Banks, N., 1907, Rep. Indiana Geol. Surv. 31: 172,174,180; 1910, Nat. Hist. 29:570. Comstock, J. H., 1913, The spider book, New York: 651, 653, 657. Emerton, J. H., 1920, Trans. Roy. Canad. Inst. 12:330; 1924, Ent. News 36:12+4. Bishop, S. C., and C. R. Crosby, 1926, J. El. Mitch. Sci. Soc. 41:209. Crosby, C. R., and S. C. Bishop, 1928, Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta., Mem. 101:1068. Chickering, A. M., 1932, Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. 17:351. Chamberlin, R. V., and W. Ivie, 1933. Bull. Univ. Utah, 23(4):49. Kaston, B. J., 19385, J. Morph. ao 191-1936, Ent. Amer. (n:s;) 162103, 107:

Lycosa pallida Franganillo, P.. 1910, Broteria 9:12 (7?) (species uncertain ).

Pardosa distincta Banks, N., 1910, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. 72:59 (=pallida=emertoni). Petrunkevtich, A., 1911, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 29:570. Crosby, C. R., and S. C. Bishop, 1928, Cornell Univ. Agr. Exper Sta. Mem. 101:1068. Chickering, A. M., 1934, Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. 19:578. Gertsch, W. J., and H. K. Wallace, 1935, Amer. Mus. Novit. 749:1. Kurata, T. B., 1937, Canad. Field Nat. 51:115. Kaston, B. J., 1938, Bull. Conn. Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. 60:184; 1948, Bull. Conn. Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. 70:332, 333. Gertsch, W. J., and W. L. Jellison, 1939, mmer. Mus. Novit. 1032:3. Levi, H. W.,.and L. R. Levi, 1951, Zoologica 36(4) :225. Levi, H. W., and H. M. Field, 1954, Amer. Mid) Nat. 51(2) :455. Lowrie, D: C. and ‘W- J. Gertsch, 1955, Amer. Mus. Novit. 1736:5.

Femare. Appearance in alcohol. The general appearance of the dorsal side of the spider is pale yellow marked with gray or brown. Eye region dusky to about posterior eye row. Carapace generally with five longitudinal bands; median band light, inner lateral bands dark, outer lateral bands light, with marginal dark line. Median band of abdomen pale yellow as on carapace, with dark grey out- line of diamond at anterior end. Region of diamond tending to be rosy or yellow ochre. Lateral bands of abdomen dark grey or brown. If the spider is light enough there appears another pair of pale

12 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 82

outer lateral bands with indistinct edges. Ventral side of female pale and not conspicuously marked, except for seven dark spots on sternum between adjacent coxae of walking legs. Abdomen with two darkish lines on posterior end, extending toward spinnerets. Spinnerets pale. Chelicerae, palpi and legs pale and unmarked. Abdomen with subcutaneous patches of white pigment, especially noticeable on ventral side.

Epigynum. (figs. 5, 6) Anterior shank of median guide fairly stout and straight-sided. Expanded base about 2/3 the length of guide, with rounded shoulders convex anteriorly. Hood with straight posterior edge and cordate anterior edge.

Mate. Appearance in alcohol. The male ranges in color from that of the female, especially in eastern North America, to nearly com- pletely black, in the southern Rocky Mountains. A pale male has. in addition to the markings of the female, a dark V on the sternum and the seven spots between coxae are larger and more conspicuous. Palpi pale, but clothed with darker hairs. Ventral abdominal lines extending farther anteriorly and heavier than in the female. Distal end of first metatarsus sometimes with dark ring. A dark male, the longitudinal bands of the carapace almost entirely obscured. Median band reduced to a brownish patch at posterior end of carapace, and outer lateral bands reduced to brownish patches; carapace otherwise black. Abdomen dark grey, but black outline of heart and two black bands lateral to median band discernible. Sternum entirely black or light with black blotches. Femora black with an irridescent blue sheen; more distal segments light or varyingly marked with black. Melanism seems to be a secondary sexual character, since the imma- ture males resemble the females in color. The males of P. distincta are the most often variable in color of the species in the distincte group, color being dependent on geography and probably on age of instar. Some populations have males with all degrees of melanism.

Paxpus. (figs. 17, 20) Palpus with large median apophysis slant- ing diagonally across to distal end of palpus, and extending over edge of cymbium. Median apophysis with conspicuous bend in the middle of its length and conspicuous longitudinal corrugations. Tip of median apophysis turning dorsad. Terminal apophysis a small pointed process. Tegulum rather deeply cut out around base of median apophysis. Embolus with base near anterior end of bulb, extending caudad, turning to cross bulb at right angles to its long axis, tip hidden behind median apophysis.

June 5, 1964 The distincta group of Pardosa 13

Diagnosis: The corrugations on the median apophysis distin- guish P. distincta from all other members of the group. The rounded anterior lobes on the expanded base of the median guide of the epigynum serve to distinguis’ the female from all other members of the group. Some of the males of P. distincta may superficially resemble P. sternalis, which is also quite black, but the palpi are clearly different. The embolus of P. sternalis is strongly bowed in an anterior direction as it crosses the bulb, and in P. distincta the embolus is straight.

Type locality: Vicinity of Toronto, Canada. ( ? )

Distribution: Pardosa distincta occurs throughout the Rocky Mountains from Arizona and New Mexico north into Alberta; eastward across north central United States and Canada, and in the New England states.

Data from material examined: COLORADO. Boulder Co.: numerous localities. Chaffee Co.: O’Haver L., 11,000’, Sawatch Mts., 5 July; Cotton- wood L., 9800’, Sawatch Mts., 10 July. Conejos Co.: 7 mi. W. Antonito, 9 July; 23 mi. W. Antonito, 9 July. Custer Co.: Beaver Crk. Springs, 3 mi. E. Pringle, 7 Aug.; Lake Crk., 9000’, Sangre de Cristo Mts., 1-3 Aug.; Sangre de Cristo Mts., 12 July. Douglas Co.: Cherry Crk., at Colo. Hwy. 83, 26 Apr. Eagle Co.: 3 mi. NE. Dowd, 29 July. Fremont Co.: Hayden Crk., 7900’, Sangre de Cristo Mts., 11 July. Gilpin Co.: Lump Gulch, 1 Aug. Grand Co.: 1 mi. E, Fraser, 20 June; Troublesome Crk., 11 July. Gunnison Co.: numerous localities. Hinsdale Co.: 45 mi. W. Creede, 10,000’, 16 July; San Cristobal L., 9200’, San Juan Mts., 2 Aug.; 3 mi. E, Slumgullion Pass, 12,000’, 6 July; Lake Fork of Gunnison R., 13 mi, SW. Lake City, 12,000’, 7 July; 6 mi. SE. Lake City, 12,800’, 29 June, Jackson Co.: 5 mi. S, Walden, 11 July. Jefferson Co.: 10 mi. SE. Bailey, 12 June. Laramie Co.: Laramie R. Valley, Medicine Bow Mts., July. Mesa Co.: 7 mi. S. Glade Park, 21 June; Mud Sprgs., Pinyon Mesa, 8 June, 22 June. Mineral Co.: Creede, 9000’, 8 July; North of Creede, July. Montrose Co.: Buckeye Res., 5 mi. NE. Paradox, 19 May, 24 June, Park Co.: 5 mi. W. Bailey, U.S. 85, 8 July; 14 mi. E. Fairplay, 26 July; 12 mi. E. Fairplay, U.S. 85, 9 July; 3 mi. W. Fairplay, U. S. 85, 9 July. Routt Co.: 4 mi, SW. Gore Pass, Colo. 84, 21 June. Saguache Co.: Cocheto a Creek, 24 mi. SE. Gunnison, 10,700’, 27 June; 5 mi. E. Cochetopa Pass, 11,000’, 10 July, San Miguel Co.: Telluride, 11,400’, 20 July; 10 mi, N. Sawpit, 20 May. Summit Co.: Frisco, 18 July; 1 mi. W. Frisco. 25 July. CONNECTICUT, New Haven Co.: Branford. MASSACHUSETTS. Barnstable Co.: Wellfleet, 28-31 Aug. Middlesex Co, MINNESOTA. Polk Co.: 8 mi, SE Warren (Marshall Co.), 5 July. MON- TANA. Carbon Co.: East Rosebud Canyon, numerous collections, NEW MEXICO. Rio Arriba Co. Sandoval Co.: Jemez Mts. SOUTH DAKOTA. County not given. Spring Creek, 11 mi. NE. Hill City, 29 June. UTAH. San Juan Co.: W. of Buckeye Reservoir (Montrose Co., Colo), 26 June. VERMONT. Windham Co.: S. Newfane, 17-26 June; Jamaica, 11 July. WYOMING. Fremont Co.: Twin Butte, 15 mi, NNE Pavillion, 7900’, 6 June. Teton Co.: Jackson Hole, numerous collections, late June—August.

14 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 82 Pardosa montgomeryi Gertsch

Pardosa montgomeryi Gertsch, W. J., 1934, Amer. Mus. Novit. 698 :24. Gertsch, W. J., and H. K. Wallace, 1935, Amer. Mus. Novit. 794:3.

Fematre. Appearance in alcohol. Carapace generally glabrous. Median band and outer lateral bands yellow ochre. Inner lateral bands sienna brown marked with small wedges of dark brown with their bases at outer edge of band. Median band expanded posterior to eyes into a pair of rounded lobes. Thin dark lines border lobes in lateral dark band. Median band with two indistinct finger-like anterior extensions to middle of ocular quadrangle. Eye region dark sienna brown. Clypeus and sides of face yellow ochre, continuing without demarcation to outer lateral bands. Carapace edged with thin dark line. Abdomen with unbroken pale yellow or whitish median band and two dark grey lateral] bands extending around sides of abdomen. Median band marked with a sienna diamond over heart, edged in grey. Dorsal sides of legs vellow ochre, femora marked with broken brown annulations. Ventral side paler than dorsal side, immaculate, except for subcutaneous patches of white in the abdomen.

Erieynum: (figs. 7, 8) Expanded base of median guide 1/3 to 14 length of guide, tapering smoothly but fairly abruptly to anterior shank. Anterior shank thin and tapering anteriorly. Hood extending slightly over anterior end of median guide. From the posterior corners of hood, two arms extend caudad, parallel to sides of anterior shank. These arms are not always distinct. Sometimes, in addition, a pair of arms extend from the anterior corners of hood parallel to the anterior edge of epigastric plate, that is, perpendic- ular to posterior arms and main axis of the spider. Again these are not always distinct. Sides of expanded base convex, so that the posterior end is not the widest part. Epigynal plate wider than long with lateral lobes pointing laterally.

Mate: Appearance in alcohol. Carapace of male slightly hir- sute, median band yellow ochre to raw sienna, anterior end in middle of ocular quadrangle, widest posterior to eves, and tapering slightly at posterior edge of carapace. Head glabrous, shiny, eye region dark brown to black. Inner lateral bands burnt sienna, with darker wedges pointing medially. Outer lateral bands vellow ochre

June 5, 1964 The distincta group of Pardosa 15

or raw sienna with dark line at edge of carapace. Abdomen with median band yellow ochre or light yellow. Diamond mark over heart more than half the length of abdomen, raw sienna or brown edged with dark grey. Sides dark brown or grey. Legs yellowish, femora darker, especially on first legs. Ventral side yellow, unmarked. except subcutaneous white patches on abdomen. Face, chelicerae and palpi brown.

Paupus: (Figs. 18, 21) Median apophysis moderately stout, bending strongly near base, elongate. with tip turning dorsad and resting on retrolateral margin of cymbium. A short stout spine at base of median apophysis turning ventrally. Embolus concealed behind tegulum. Terminal apophysis indistinct.

Diagnosis: P. montgomeryi resembles P. xerophila with which it is sympatric and P. utahensis with which it is probably allopatric. Females of P. montgomeryi have a much smaller expanded base of the median guide than do females of P. utahensis. The heart mark- ing of P. montgomeryi is dark and the heart marking of P. verophila is light. The females of these two species may also be distinguished by the shape of the epigynal plate. The epigynal plate of P. montgomeryi is wider than long with lateral lobes pointing laterally. The epigynal plate of P. xerophila is longer than wide and lateral lobes point anteriorly. The males of P. montgomeryi have a distinct light median band on the abdomen, by which they are easily separated from P. xerophila, which is marked with a dark. indistinct median band on the abdomen. Males of P. montgomery? are distinguished from P. utahensis by the median apophysis which bends at the base in P. montqomeryi but arches anteriorly in P. utahensis.

Type locality: Given as Edinburg, Hidalgo Co., Texas, but this is undoubtedly incorrect and should be Camp Mary White. Otero Co., New Mexico (Gertsch, pers. comm.). ( ¢ )

Distribution: Arizona, New Mexico, Durango. Probably not Texas. (fig. 4.)

Data from material examined: ARIZONA. Apache Co.: White Mts., 17 mi. NE. White River, 8-10 July. Cochise Co.: Rustler’s Park, Chirica- uhua Mts., 3 July, 1 Aug. Coconino Co.: Flagstaff, July, NEW MEXICO. Otero Co.: Camp Mary White, 9-12 Aug. Sandoval Co.: Jemez Mts.

16 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 82

Pardosa orophila Gertsch

Pardosa orophila Gertsch, W. J., 1938, Amer. Mus. Novit. 636:28. (n. sp.) Gertsch, W. J., and H. K. Wallace, 1937, Amer. Mus. Novit. 919:3 (=P. yavapa Gertsch and Wallace, non Chamberlin).

Pardosa yavapa (non Chamberlin) Gertsch, W. J., and H. K. Wallace, 1935, Amer. Mus. Novit., 749: fig. 9. Gertsch, W. J., 1935, Amer. Mus. Novit. 792.:18 (part).

Femate. Appearance in alcohol. Pardosa orophila is the most brightly colored spider of the distincta group. Ocular region dark brown across first two eye rows and between lateral eyes of second and third eye rows. Brown extending posteriorly and continuing as inner lateral bands. Median band beginning near second eye row, having either a straight anterior edge, or with two rounded lobes, and passing posteriorly to end of carapace. Posterior to third eye row it broadens out forming a round spot which is a bright cherry red. Median band constricted posterior to spot, then flaring slightly and tapering to posterior end of carapace. Color gradually changing from cherry red spot to yellow at posterior end. Inner lateral bands uniform dark brown, rather wide and with distinct edges. Narrow outer lateral bands yellow with broad brown line at margin of carapace. Median band of abdomen composed of several patches of color, all lighter than lateral bands. Heart marking light brown or rust, edged with dark brown. Two yellow diamonds lateral to ante- rior end of heart marking edged with brown. Lateral to posterior end of heart marking are two triangles edged with brown. Five or six pairs of triangles continue to spinnerets. The center of each triangle has a small dark spot bearing a thick dark hair. In older specimens this pattern gives the appearance of a light median band with transverse dark markings. Spider entirely clothed with light grey hair. Legs often quite red, especially patellae and tibiae, with irregular dark annulations. Legs also quite hairy, with conspicuous spines on dorsal sides of femora. Ventral side of female yellow, sternum marked with dark color, but with yellow median line. Coxae immaculate, yellow. Ventral side of legs generally dark. Abdomen yellow with a pair of darker lines running longitudinally, but they are not conspicuous since abdomen is clothed with light hairs. Clypeus red, as are sides of face below eyes. There is a “mustache” of white hairs on both sides of the face beginning posterior to first eye row and extending to the posterior eye row. The mustache is also found on immature males and females.

June 5, 1964 The distincta group of Pardosa i

Epigynum. (figs. 9, 10) Expanded base of median guide about 1/3 the length of guide, with a small square posterior end. Two round lobes at anterior corners of expanded base, extending past base of anterior shank and lateral to it. Anterior shank with short narrow base, expanding anteriorly to form a large saddle-shaped platform. The platform is not quite twice as large as the expanded base. Shank not continuing anteriorly past the concave anterior edge of platform. Hood narrow, long and pointed posteriorly, over- lapping raised platform slightly.

Mate. (Not previously described) Appearance in alcohol. Median band of carapace beginning between second and third eye rows, expanding to a round spot posterior to eyes, and tapering to pos- terior end. Round spot bright cherry red, median band gradually changing to yellow ochre at posterior end. Eye region surrounding median band and wide inner lateral bands dark brown. Median band and inner lateral bands clothed with brown hair. Narrow outer lateral bands of carapace yellow and edged with wide dark band at margin. Abdomen with light median band composed of patches of color and lateral bands dark brown. Median band ranges from yellow to red. Heart area marked with brown diamond, edged with dark brown or dark grey. Two pairs of yellow or red diamonds or triangles edged with dark color, lateral to heart marking. Median band posterior to heart marking composed of five or six paired triangles of yellow or yellow ochre, edged with dark color. The center of each triangle with a small dark spot bearing a thick dark hair. Paired triangles separated by bands of red or brown. Abdomen clothed with yellowish or brownish hair. Dorsal side of legs red, especially patellae and tibiae, with irregular dark annula- tions, femora dark brown. Ventral surface of male light. Sternum brown with yellow median Line. Center of abdomen vellow or rusty with dark patch in genital region. Ventral side of femora uniformly dark, all other segments light including coxae. Clypeus and sides of face below eyes red, and “white mustache’ found on the female is brown and inconspicuous in male. Chelicerae and endites red marked with brown, palpi uniformly dark brown.

Paps. (figs. 19, 22) Palpus somewhat long and narrow. Median apophysis extending diagonally across bulb toward distal end. tip ot median apophysis turning dorsad and caudad at edge of cymbium. Base of median apophysis wide, but constricting greatly after leaving tegulum. Anterior edge of median apophysis straight, posterior edge convex, forming a large bulge in middle. Tip slender but tapered

18 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 82

only at end. Base of median apophysis bearing short hook-shaped process. Tegulum not especially enlarged, not overhanging cymbium. Embolus beginning at anterior end of bulb, extending caudad to tegulum, then turning laterally across palpus dorsal to median apophysis. Terminal apophysis a blunt wedge at base of embolus and not extending to midline of palpus.

Diagnosis: The cherry red spot posterior to the eyes usually serves to distinguish adults of P. orophila from other species in the distincta group. The epigynum of the female is characterized by the saddle-shaped platform of the anterior shank of the median guide. The palpus is characterized by the basal constriction and posterior bulge of the median apophysis. Immature specimens of P. orophila may be separated from P. yavapa by the white mustache on the sides of the face below the eves. It is almost the only character which will separate immature members of the two species and is found on both immature males and females of P. orophila.

Type locality: Boulder Canyon, Boulder Co., Colorado. ( 2 )

Distribution: Arizona. New Mexico, and eastern side of Rocky Mountains in Colorado. (fig. 3).

Data from material examined: ARIZONA, Cochise Co.: Southwestern Research Station, 5 mi. W. Portal, 6-20 July, 5-15 Aug.: 7 mi. W. Portal, 4 Aug. Coconino Co.: Flagstaff, nr. base of Sunset Peak, 17 Aug. COLO- RADO. Boulder Co.: Eldorado Springs, 12-13 May, 4 Aug.; 5 mi. NW. Boulder, 7000’, 8 May, 26 May, 2 June, 8 June,; Boulder, 12 March. Custer Co.: Smith Creek, 7 mi, SW. Wetmore, 10 Aug. Fremont Co.: 8 mi. W. Canyon City, 4 Aug. Huerfano Co,: Dog Springs Arroyo, 16-19 June; 2 mi. N. Gardner, 16 June. Jefferson Co.: Plainview, 6 Apr., 20 Apr., 18 May, 27 May, 9 June. NEW MEXICO. Bernalillo Co.: Sandia Mts. Lincoln Co.: (two localities) Sandoval Co.: Jemez Mts. MEXICO, CHIHUAHUA. 10 mi. W. Namiquipa, 3 July; Sammil, W. Primavera, 7000’, 2 July. DURANGO: Otinapa, 7500’, 7 Aug.; Palos Colorados, 8000’, 5 Aug.; Puentes, 7500’, 23 July; Otinapa 8200’, 12 Aug.

Pardosa utahensis Chamberlin

Pardosa utahensis Chamberlin, R. V., 1919, Ann. Ent. Soe. Amer. 12:258 (n. sp.) Gertsch, W. J., 19384, Amer. Mus. Novit. 693 :23

(=distincta). Gertsch, W. J., and H. K. Wallace, 1935, Amer. Mus. Novit. 794:1, 3 (=4distincta). Levi, H. W. and L. R. Levi, 1951, Zoologica 36:225. Lowrie, D. C. and W. J. Gertsch, 1955,

Amer. Mus. Novit. 1736:5.


June 5, 1964 The distincta group of Pardosa 19


a P. orophila


Figure 3. Distribution of P. orophila and P. utahensis. In Colorado the symbols represent county records, elsewhere they are usually single collections.

Fremate. Appearance in alcohol. Carapace marked with five longi- tudinal bands. Median band yellow or peach colored, beginning at posterior eye row, bulging slightly posterior to eves, extending posteriorly to end of carapace with parallel sides. Inner lateral bands dark brown, with well-defined edges, outer lateral bands yellow with dark line at carapace margin. Ocular region brown, clothed with grey hair. Median band of abdomen vellow or yellow ochre. A brown or rust diamond outlined with dark grey marking the

20 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 82

heart area. Median band posterior to heart area with scalloped edges, and composed of indistinct paired circles. At the center of each circle is a dark spot bearing a thick dark hair. Lateral bands of abdomen brown becoming lighter at lateral edges. Abdomen clothed with light hair. Dorsal side of legs tan, noticeably hairy and spiny. Ventral side of spider yellow, immaculate, but clothed with long black hair especially on sternum and legs. Face yellow.

Epicynvum. (figs. 11, 12) Expanded base of median guide about 2/3 the length of guide. Expanded base flaring slightly from pos- terior edge for nearly its length, then tapering abruptly to anterior shank. Anterior shank wide adjacent to expanded base and tapering to a narrow stem at anterior end, usually causing a secondary pair of shoulders on the median guide. Hood rounded on posterior margin, and often trilobed. Anterior edge of hood not raised above epigynal plate.

Mate. Appearance in alcohol. Carapace and dorsum of abdomen similar to female. Median band tends to be darker, sometimes with a rusty spot posterior to eyes. Legs brown and hairy. Ventral side pale, or darker than female. Sternum sometimes with dark blotches. Clypeus, sides of face and chelicerae yellow or brown. Palpi dark brown.

Patpus. (figs. 23, 26) Median apophysis extending diagonally across bulb toward distal end, tip of median apophysis turning dorsad and slightly caudad at edge of cymbium. Median apophysis with bulge at midsection and arching anteriorly. Base of median apophysis with hook-shaped process turning ventrally. Tegulum wider than long, with an anterior bulge at middle of its anterior edge covering base of median apophysis. Terminal apophysis a short blunt hook.

Diagnosis: The females of P. utahensis resemble those of P. distincta. P. utahensis is a darker yellow, and the median band on the abdomen is darker than the median band on the carapace. In P. distincta the median band is the same color on both tagmata. The epigyna will usually separate the two species. In P. utahensis the anterior edge of